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OUTREACH January 2007

January Meeting

        The Oklahoma Space Alliance will meet at 3:00 p.m. on January 20, 2007 at the McMurrays' house, 2715 Aspen Circle in Norman. Prospective members are also welcome.        
        To get to the meeting either: (1) Take the Lindsey Street east exit from I-35, turn right at Berry, and proceed to Imhoff Road. Turn right at Imhoff, right at Poplar Lane, left at Aspen Lane, and right at Aspen Circle. The turns at Poplar, Aspen Lane and Aspen Circle are the first you can take, or (2) Take the Highway 9 east off I-35, turn left at Imhoff Road, left at Poplar, left at Aspen Lane, and right at Aspen Circle.
        Claire asks us to look at countdowncreations.com/partysupplies.htm before the meeting and be thinking of Yuri’s night party possibilities. [We can also use these at parties we throw at conventions.]

Minutes of December Meeting

                Oklahoma Space Alliance met at the McMurray house on December 16 for our annual Christmas party. Attending were Tom and Heidi Koszoru, Tim Scott, Dave St. John, Claire and Kip McMurray, Russ Davoren and his wife and Syd Henderson.
        This was also our meeting for electing officers, and, without opposition, we elected Tom Koszoru President, John Northcutt Vice-President, Syd Henderson Secretary and Tim Scott Treasurer.

Notes on January 10 OSIDA Meeting

        The Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority met January 10 at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Building in Oklahoma City. Claire McMurray and Syd Henderson visited on behalf of Oklahoma Space Alliance. Board members attending were General Ken McGill, Todd Russ, Joe King, Don Rodolph, Lou Sims and Jack Bonny.
        The Assignment and Assumption Agreement was signed in Clinton on December 5, transferring title to the Oklahoma Space Authority. Clinton-Sherman Industrial Airpark is now officially the Oklahoma Spaceport. OSIDA filed a report in Washita County. Oklahoma Space Authority will get a bill of $20,000 for legal services. OSIDA will have to authorize the expenditure.
        Armadillo Aerospace will return for more testing at the Oklahoma Spaceport. They cannot do vertical launches but they can do tethered operations. This can be publicized as an opportunity for teachers, students and other children to see what is going on at the Oklahoma Spaceport. This test would be on a Saturday or a Sunday.
        The FAA Commercial Space Conference is in Arlington, Virginia on February 6 and 7. Most years, this would interfere with the February OSIDA meeting, but this year it’s the week before and OSIDA should meet on February 14.
        Southwest Oklahoma State University has a grant for an intern and wishes to know whether OSIDA has a position available. Yes they do, and the intern will begin on February 1.
        The Starbase Oklahoma program is going well. Nine or ten southwestern Oklahoma schools have expressed interest. The program kicks off January 27 in Weatherford.
        The Rocketplane-Kistler XP program has had to slow down because of the big contract they received for a feasibility study for a rocket to service the Space Station. They have a 6% weight margin on the XP, more than expected, so they can carry five passengers rather than three. They have purchased 11 jet engines. They have completed a test chamber for simulation.
        John Harrington informed us Microsoft is doing a contest to solve a puzzle, to publicize their new Windows Vista™ operating system. The winner will get a ride on the Rocketplane XP into space, the “ultimate vanishing point.” The website for the contest is vanishingpointgame.com.
        Actual XP flights now look like they’ll take place in 2009.

Viewing Opportunities for Satellites (January 18 – February 18)

        NASA has dropped the International Space Station from the list of satellites covered by J-Pass, although they are still covered on the Orbital Tracking page via spaceflight1.nasa.gov/realdata/sightings/. This only seems to give you data for a couple of weeks. J-Pass still covers unmanned satellites at science.nasa.gov/Realtime/JPass/.
        You can get sighting information at http://www.heavens-above.com/. Heavens Above allows you to get Station data for 10 day periods, and gives you a constellation map showing the trajectory of the satellite. If you go to the bottom of the map page, it will give you a really detailed map with the location at 10 or 15-second intervals, depending on detail. In fact, the detailed charts will even show you the tracks against maps of the constellations, which should help you if you are familiar with the night sky.
        Sky Online (the Sky & Telescope web site) carries station observation times for the next few nights at skyandtelescope.com/observing/almanac. Note that with the addition of the solar panels, the magnitude of the Space Station is now -1.0, making it brighter than all the stars other than the Sun and Sirius, and the planet Saturn as well. The Hubble Space Telescope is roughly magnitude 1.5, which is brighter than the stars in the Big Dipper, although, since it is lower in the sky, it is a bit more difficult to see. 
        Missions to the Space Station may change its orbit. The next manned mission to the International Space Station will be in March.
        Pass times are from Heavens Above.

Station 2/2/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
6:32 a.m.        320°               17°*
6:33                330                34
6:34                  45                65
6:35                113                33
6:36                121                16
* Appears from Earth’s shadow

Station 2/3/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
6:54 a.m.        265°               21°
6:55                229                27
6:56                190                21

HST 2/4/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
6:49 p.m.        215°               22°
6:50                194                28
6:51                167                30
6:52                143                25
6:53                126                18*
* Passes very close to Sirius

HST 2/5/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
6:47 p.m.        225°               20°
6:48                205                28
6:49                178                31
6:50                194                28
6:51                133                21*
* Passes very close to Sirius

HST 2/6/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
6:46 p.m.        228°               21°
6:47                209                28
6:48                181                32
6:49                151                27
6:50                135                21

HST 2/7/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
6:44 p.m.        230°               20°
6:45                212                27
6:46                185                31
6:47                158                20
6:48                140                20

Station 2/10/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
7:22 p.m.        203°               16°
7:23                186                29
7:24                136                43*
* Vanishes into Earth’s shadow

Station 2/11/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
7:43 p.m.        225°               15°
7:44                267                28
7:45                314                44*
* Vanishes into Earth’s shadow

Station 2/12/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
6:29 p.m.        198°               15°
6:30                180                27
6:31                136                37
6:32                  89                27
6:33                  70                16

Station 2/13/2007
Time            Position           Elevation
6:50 p.m.        247°               17°
6:51                262                41
6:52                317*               42*
6:53                  12                37
6:54                  34                16**
*Passes through center of Cassiopeia
**Passes through bowl of Big Dipper

        Key: Position is measured in degrees clockwise from north. That is, 0° is due north, 90° is due east, 180° is due south, and 270° is due west.  Your fist held at arm's length is about ten degrees wide. "Elevation" is elevation above the horizon in degrees. Thus to find the Hubble Space Telescope at 6:48 p.m. on February 7, measure four fist-widths east of south, then two above the horizon.
        In addition to the J-Pass program which I use to provide this satellite viewing data, J-Pass provides a service called J-Pass Generator, which will e‑mail you sighting information for the next three days for up to ten satellites. For more information, go to science.nasa.gov/Realtime/JPass/PassGenerator/.

Calendar of Events

        January 20, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 3:00 p.m. Location to be announced. Details will be posted on osa.nss.org/index.html a week or two before the meeting.
        February 2007 (maybe): Hayabusa begins its return to Earth.
        February 10, 2007: Saturn is at opposition.
        February 14, 2007: [tentative] OSIDA meets at 1:30 p.m. at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Building, 201 NE 21st St., Oklahoma City, OK 73105. For more information, visit http://www.state.ok.us/~okspaceport/.
        February 17, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced. Details will be posted on osa.nss.org/index.html a week or two before the meeting.
        February 25 – March 2, 2007: New Horizons passes Jupiter on its way to Pluto.
        February 26, 2007: Rosetta asteroid probe flies by Mars.
        March 3, 2007: Total lunar eclipse. Totality begins at 4:44 p.m. CST and ends at 5:58 p.m. Oklahoma will see the only the partial phase at the end of the eclipse, but the on the east coast of the United States, the eclipse will still be total at moonrise.
        March 11, 2007: Daylight Saving Time begins. (It’s moved up this year.)
        March 14, 2007: [tentative] OSIDA meets at 1:30 p.m. at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Building, 201 NE 21st St., Oklahoma City, OK 73105. For more information, visit http://www.state.ok.us/~okspaceport/.
        March 17, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced. Details will be posted on osa.nss.org/index.html a week or two before the meeting.
        March 20. 2007: Vernal equinox at 7:07 p.m. CDT.
        March 21, 2007: Mercury is at greatest elongation, 28° west of the Sun (hence can be seen before dawn).
        April 9, 2007: The asteroid Juno is at opposition at magnitude 9.7.
        April 11, 2007: [tentative] OSIDA meets at 1:30 p.m. at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Building, 201 NE 21st St., Oklahoma City, OK 73105. For more information, visit http://www.state.ok.us/~okspaceport/.
        April 17 – 19, 2007: Launch of Chinese Chang’e 1 lunar probe.
        April 21, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced. Details will be posted on osa.nss.org/index.html a week or two before the meeting.
        April 22, 2007: Lyrid Meteor Shower peaks,
        May 19, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced. Details will be posted on osa.nss.org/index.html a week or two before the meeting.
        May 24 – 28, 2007: the 26th International Space Development Conference in Dallas, Texas, hosted by the National Space Society of North Texas. For more information, visit http://isdc.nss.org/2007. Contact e‑mail addresses are Ken Murphy at [email protected] and Carol Johnson at
[email protected].
        May 30, 2007: The asteroid Vesta is at opposition, 102 million miles from Earth, and is magnitude 5.4, which means it’s visible to the naked eye. It’s also brighter than the Uranus, which never gets above magnitude 5.7.
        June 2, 2007: Mercury is at greatest eastern elongation, 23° east of the Sun (hence can be seen after sunset).
        June 5, 2007: Jupiter is at opposition.
        June 6, 2007: Messenger's second flyby of Venus.
        June 9, 2007: Venus is at maximum eastern elongation, 45.4° east of the Sun.
        June 16, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
        June 19, 2007: Pluto is at opposition at magnitude 13.8.
        June 20, 2007: Schedule launch of the Dawn mission to Ceres and Vesta.
        June 21, 2007: Summer solstice at 1:06 p.m. CDT.
        July 20, 2007: Mercury is at greatest western elongation, 20° west of the Sun (hence can be seen before sunrise).
        July 20. 2007: 38th anniversary of first moonwalk.
        July 21, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
        August 13 2007: Neptune is at opposition at magnitude 7.8.
        August 13, 2007: Perseid meteor shower peaks. This is expected to be the best meteor shower of the year, and it takes place during the New Moon.
        August 18, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
        August 28, 2007: Total lunar eclipse, Totality begins at 4:52 a.m. and ends at 6:23 a.m. In Oklahoma, this eclipse will begin with the Moon partially eclipsed and we will see the entire total phase, although the end will be just after sunrise.
        September 2007: India will launch its lunar probe Chandrayaan 1. This craft will orbit the moon at an altitude of 60 miles for two years.
        September 2, 2007: Asteroid Pallas is at opposition at magnitude 8.8.
        September 9 2007: Uranus is at opposition. It will be magnitude 5.7, which is barely visible to sharp eyes in a dark sky.
        September 15, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
        September 23, 2007: Autumnal equinox is at 4:51 p.m. CDT.
        September 29, 2007: Mercury is at greatest eastern elongation, 26° east of the Sun (hence can be seen after sunset).
        October 20, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
        October 28, 2007: Venus is at maximum western elongation, 46.5° west of the Sun.
        November 2, 2007: Mercury is at greatest western elongation, 19° west of the Sun (hence can be seen before sunrise).
        November 9, 2007: the dwarf planet Ceres is at opposition at magnitude 7.2...
        November 17, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
        November 17, 2007: Peak of Leonid meteor shower.
        December-January 2007: Naked-eye Comet 8P/Tuttle peaks, probably at around 4th magnitude.
        December 14, 2007: Peak of Geminid meteor shower.
        December 16, 2007: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance Christmas Party, time and location to be announced.
        December 22: Winter solstice is 12:08 p.m.
        December 24, 2007: Mars is at opposition with magnitude -1.6.
        January 15, 2008: Messenger's first flyby of Mercury.
        January 20, 2007: Mercury is at greatest eastern elongation, 19° east of the Sun (hence can be seen after sunset).
        February 20, 2008: Total lunar eclipse visible from North America.
        February 24, 2008: Saturn is at opposition.
        May 23 – 26, 2008: 27th International Space Development Conference. Location to be announced.
        July 9, 2008: Jupiter is at opposition.
        September 5, 2008 The ESA's Rosetta asteroid & comet probe passes by asteroid 2867 Steins.
        October 6, 2008: Messenger's second flyby of Mercury.
        October 2008: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is launched.
        Sometime in 2009: Russia sends sample return flight to Phobos.
        January 14, 2009: Venus is at maximum eastern elongation, 47.1° east of the Sun.
        March 2009: Dawn asteroid probe flies by Mars.
        March 8, 2009: Saturn is at opposition.
        August 14, 2009: Jupiter is at opposition.
        September 30, 2009: Messenger's third flyby of Mercury.
        January 29, 2010: Mars is at opposition with magnitude -1.3.
        June 2010: Hayabusa returns to Earth with a sample of asteroid Itokawa.  This will be the first asteroid sample returned to Earth.
        June 2010: Japan launches the Venus Climate Orbiter to Venus.
        July 10, 2010: The Rosetta comet probe passes asteroid 21 Lutetia.
        September 21, 2010: Jupiter is at opposition. This is the closest Jupiter will come to Earth in the next 20 years, about 370 million miles.
        December 2010: Japan’s Venus Climate Orbiter arrives at Venus.
        Sometime in 2011: ESA launches the ExoMars Mars Rover.
        October 2011: Dawn probe orbits Vesta.
        March 18, 2011: Messenger goes into orbit around Mercury.
        October 2011 – April 2012: Dawn probe orbits Vesta.
        Sometime in 2012: Launch of the Space Interferometry Mission.
        Sometime in 2012: Russia launches the “Luna-Glob” mission which will deploy 13 mini-probes upon the lunar surface.
        March 3, 2012: Mars is at opposition at magnitude -1.2. This is the worst opposition for the next twenty years.
        June 6, 2012: Venus transits the Sun's disk.  The early part of this will be visible from the United States, but the full transit will only be visible from the western Pacific Ocean, eastern Asia, eastern Australia, and eastern Indonesia including New Guinea.
        June 2013: Earliest date for the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.
        August 2013 (approximate): The European Space Agency/JAXA BepiColombo Mercury Orbiter is launched.
        August 2014 - December 2015: The Rosetta space probe orbits comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Early in this mission, it will release the Philae lander. The Rosetta probe web site is The Rosetta probe web site is www.esa.int/export/SPECIALS/Rosetta
        February 2015: Dawn space probe arrives at Ceres. Operations are scheduled to continue through July.
        July 14. 2015: Projected date for the arrival of the New Horizons probe at the Pluto-Charon system.
        July 2016-2020:  The New Horizon probe visits the Kuiper Belt.
        August 21, 2017: The next total solar eclipse visible in the United States, on a pretty straight path from Portland, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina.  St. Louis is the biggest city in-between.
        August 2019 (approximate) BepiColombo arrives at Mercury orbit.
        April 8, 2024: A total solar eclipse crosses the US from the middle of the Mexico-Texas border, crosses Arkansas, southern Missouri, Louisville, Cleveland, Buffalo and northern New England.
        August 12, 2045: The next total solar eclipse visible in Oklahoma.  This one is also visible in Salt Lake City, Denver, Little Rock (again), Tampa Bay and New Orleans.

The Comet Passes

        As I’m writing this, Comet McNaught is dropping by the Sun. It is currently at magnitude -5, making it the brightest comet since Ikeya-Seki in 1965, and is far brighter than Hyakutake or Hale-Bopp. In fact it is visible in daylight, which only happens a few times a century. By comparison, Venus only gets to magnitude -4. On January 12, it passed only 16 million miles from the Sun.
        This comet took everyone by surprise because it approached the Earth from the far side of the Sun. On December 29, Bjorn Granslo in Norway spotted it when it was only 4th magnitude. By January 2, it was already up to 2nd magnitude.
        Because of the comet’s speed and trajectory, the best time for viewing it has already passed in the Northern Hemisphere (although trying to find it in daylight will be cool). The next couple of weeks are the best viewing times for the Southern Hemisphere, but it will be fading rapidly by the end of the month.

Sky Viewing

        Comet McNaught is currently passing close to the Earth and is magnitude -5. (See above.)
        Mercury was in conjunction with the Sun on January 7, and is still hidden in the Sun’s glare. However it should be just possible to spot it just after sunset on January 19 when Mercury is just to the right of the thin crescent of the Moon. By February 1, Mercury will be magnitude -0.9 and about six degrees below and to the right of Venus. Mercury will be at its greatest elongation with respect to the Sun on February 7, about seven degrees below and to the right of Venus. After that it will fade rapidly as it approaches inferior conjunction on February 22.
        Venus is low in the southwest at sunset, shining at magnitude -3.9. By February 1, Venus will be easily visible a half-hour after sunset, and will be progressively easier to see through the month.
        Mars is just visible about 45 minutes before sunrise and is only magnitude 1.4. It won’t get much brighter in February, when it will be rising 90 minutes before the Sun. Mars will gradually brighten through the year with its opposition coming on Christmas Eve.
        Jupiter (magnitude -1.9) is higher in the morning sky and well to the upper right of Mars, and to the left of Scorpius. The bright star to the lower left is Antares, which is as red as Mars and at apparent magnitude 1.1 is currently considerably brighter than its rival. Jupiter will be rising at 3:30 a.m. in early February and at 2:00 a.m. by the end of the month
        Saturn at magnitude 0.1 is still the brightest planet for most of the night, rising around 8 p.m. and visible for the rest of the night. It is in the constellation Leo. The first magnitude star Leo is about six degrees east of Saturn, but Saturn is a full magnitude brighter. Saturn reaches opposition on February 10, when it will be an even magnitude 0.0. This isn’t quite as bright as the last few oppositions, but it is still as bright as Saturn will get for the next 20 years.
        Uranus is magnitude 5.9 and low in the southwest after sunset. On February 7, it will be 0.7° north of Venus. Uranus will be lost in the sun’s glare in late February as it approaches conjunction with the Sun on March 7.
        Neptune is lost in the Sun’s glare as it approaches conjunction with the Sun on February 8, and still not be visible at the end of February.
        Pluto is a sparkling magnitude 14 in the morning sky above Jupiter.

Space News

        An astronomical survey by a team led by Todd Henry of Georgia State University has found 20 star systems within 33 light years of Earth. The previously unknown star systems include three binaries and two triplets, so there are actually 27 stars involved. The stars are red dwarfs and are so dim that they can only be seen with a powerful telescope. (The nearest star to the Sun, Proxima Centauri, is a red dwarf and has an apparent magnitude of 11 despite being only 4.2 light-years away.) The stars will be inspected for possible planets; although any planets close enough to a red dwarf to have liquid water would also be tidally locked and present the same face always to its sun.

        NASA may have lost contact with the Mars Global Surveyor on November 2, but it gave us one last revelation. Images taken of a gully in 2004 and 2005 reveal bright streaks that weren’t there in 1999, indicating an outflow of water between the two sets of images. This is the first proof that liquid water occurs on Mars occasionally even now. The amount of water would have been on the order of tens of thousands of gallons, and would have evaporated or frozen in a few hours. Mike Malin, whose team discovered the gullies, believes the water comes from underground reservoirs, while Phil Christensen of Arizona State University believes it came from melting ice.

        On January 15, it was announced that the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter had located Mars Pathfinder and may have located Sojourner as well. Photo at http://www.spacetoday.net/Summary/3631.

Space-Related Articles

        “Ringworld Revelations,” by Matthew S. Tiscareno, Sky & Telescope, February 2007, pp. 32 – 9. Details of what we’ve learned about Saturn’s rings from the Cassini mission.

        “Mars Like You’ve Never Seen It,” by Alfred S. McEwen, Astronomy, February 2007, pp 36 -41. Unusually detailed 3-D photographs from the Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter, showing features down to 18 inches across.

        “A Base to Build On,” by Frank Morring, Jr., Aviation Week & Space Technology, December 11, 2006, pp 24 – 26. How international and commercial space operators figure in to NASA’s proposal to build a base near the South Pole of the Moon. One of the proposed sites is on the rim of Shackleton Crater. This spot gets sunlight more than 70% of the time and temperature variations are 120°F compared with 450°F near the equator. In addition, Shackleton Crater is deep and its bottom is perpetually dark, which is promising for those who still hope to find usable deposits of water there.

        The December 15, 2006 issue of Science has the results of the Stardust probe to Comet Wild 2. Most interesting revelation is that some of the material comprising Wild 2 appears to have formed in the inner part of the solar system and blown out to the outer solar system during the formation of the Sun. This material comprises about 10% of the mass of the comet. This indicated that the material in the solar nebula was much more turbulent then previously suspected.

        The December 11, 2006 issue of Aviation Week & Space Technology has several articles on commercial spaceships, including one on Bigelow’s inflatable space modules.

Oklahoma Space Alliance Officers, 2007 (Area Code 405)

Tom Koszoru, President                                     366-1797 (H)
John Northcutt, Vice-President                           390-3476 (H)
Syd Henderson, Secretary & Outreach Editor    321-4027 (H)
Tim Scott, Treasurer                                           740-7549 (H)
Claire McMurray, Update Editor                       329-4326 (H)  863-6173 (C)

OSA E-mail Addresses and Web Site:

[email protected] (Claire McMurray, new address)
[email protected] (Heidi and Tom Koszoru)
[email protected] (Syd Henderson)
[email protected] (Tim Scott)
[email protected] (John Northcutt)
[email protected]  (Steve Galpin)
[email protected] (Nancy and David Craig).
        E-mail for OSA should be sent to [email protected].  Members who wish  their e-mail addresses printed in Outreach, and people wishing space-related materials e-mailed to them should contact Syd.  Oklahoma Space Alliance website is osa.nss.org/index.html. Webmaster is Syd Henderson.

Other Information

        Air and Space Museum: Omniplex, Oklahoma City, 602‑6664 or 1-800-532-7652.
        Oklahoma Space Industrial Development Authority (OSIDA), 401 Sooner Drive/PO Box 689, Burns Flat, OK 73624, 580-562-3500.  Web site www.state.ok.us/~okspaceport.
        Tulsa Air and Space Museum, 7130 E. Apache, Tulsa, OK  74115.
Web Site is www.tulsaairandspacemuseum.com.  Phone (918)834-9900.
        The Mars Society address is Mars Society, Box 273, Indian Hills CO 80454. Their web address is www.marsociety.org.
        The National Space Society's Headquarters phone is 202-429-1600.  The Chapters Coordinator is Bennett Rutledge 720-529-8024.  The address is:  National Space Society, 1620 I (Eye) Street NW Ste. 615, Washington, DC 20006.    Web page is space.nss.org.  
        NASA Spacelink BBS  205-895-0028.  Or try www.nasa.gov.  .
        Congressional Switchboard 202/224-3121.
         Write to any U. S. Senator or Representative at [name]/ Washington DC, 20510 (Senate) or 20515 [House].

 A Chapter of the National Space Society

Please enroll me as a member of Oklahoma Space Alliance.  Enclosed is:
                   ____             $10.00 for Membership.  (This allows full voting privileges, but covers only your own newsletter expense.)
___________________ $15.00 for family membership

                                     TOTAL  amount enclosed

        National Space Society has a special $20 introductory rate for new members ($35 for new international members).  Regular membership rates are $45, international $60.  Student memberships are $20.  Part of the cost is for the magazine, Ad Astra.  Mail to: National Space Society, 1620 I (Eye) Street NW, Washington DC 20006, or join at space.nss.org/membership. (Brochures are at the bottom with the special rate.) Be sure to ask them to credit your membership to Oklahoma Space Alliance.
        To join the Mars Society, visit.  One-year memberships are $50.00; student and senior memberships are $25, and Family memberships are $100.00.    Their address is Mars Society, Box 273, Indian Hills CO 80454.

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