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OUTREACH March 2007

March Meeting

            The Oklahoma Space Alliance will meet at 3:00 p.m. on March 17, 2007 at the McMurrays' house, 2715 Aspen Circle in Norman. Prospective members are also welcome.      
            To get to the meeting either: (1) Take the Lindsey Street east exit from I-35, turn right at Berry, and proceed to Imhoff Road. Turn right at Imhoff, right at Poplar Lane, left at Aspen Lane, and right at Aspen Circle. The turns at Poplar, Aspen Lane and Aspen Circle are the first you can take, or (2) Take the Highway 9 east off I-35, turn left at Imhoff Road, left at Poplar, left at Aspen Lane, and right at Aspen Circle.


Minutes of February Meeting

            Oklahoma Space Alliance met at the McMurray’s house on February 17. Attending were Claire McMurray, John Northcutt, Tim Scott, Tom Koszoru, Syd Henderson and Laura Campbell. This was the first time Laura had attended a meeting, although she has been corresponding with us for months. She is an engineer for Rocketplane.
            Yuri’s Night will be in two large rooms at the Moore public library at April 12. We are hoping for a speaker with Rocketplane. Laura will ask around at Rocketplane. We will have a DVD on Zero G. We will not have a live band, just a boom box.
            We will begin setting up at 5:30 p.m. The celebration will be from 6:30 until 8:30 p.m. We have to be out of the Library by 9:00 p.m. There is wifi at the Library so we can connect to the internet as part of the international celebration.
            We will contact Magi Whitaker with the Challenger Center. She knows how to do two stage rockets. The age group would be ~12 and up. Should we do a costume party?
            We cannot put things on walls, but we can on woodwork. We can tape a poster to the door. Claire has quite a few posters, which we went through. Tom will get foam board to hold the posters.
            The Omniplex wants to know in November or December about next year’s Yuri’s Night. That will be on a Saturday. Syd should put in web Update that the Omniplex will participate next year.
            Laura suggested a space colony costume party. But would boys participate? Perhaps if we call it a costume parade?
            We should have door prizes.      
            To register Yuri’s Night event will cost $25.00. We will get a Yuri’s night packet if we do so.
            We discussed publicity. We can send out a press release. Laura can get a list of places to send it to.
            Tom suggested doing a turkey roast at the Medieval Fair.
            Should we have a meeting at a restaurant? Possibly in June?
            The 2008 ISDC will be in Washington. Toronto and Orlando are bidding for 2009.
            Who is the publicity person for OSIDA?
            The next meeting will be at the McMurrays’ at 3:00 p.m. on March 17.

Viewing Opportunities for Satellites (March 17 – April 15)

         NASA has dropped the International Space Station from the list of satellites covered by J-Pass, although they are still covered on the Orbital Tracking page via spaceflight1.nasa.gov/realdata/sightings/. This only seems to give you data for a couple of weeks. J-Pass still covers unmanned satellites at science.nasa.gov/Realtime/JPass/.
         You can get sighting information at http://www.heavens-above.com/. Heavens Above allows you to get Station data for 10 day periods, and gives you a constellation map showing the trajectory of the satellite. If you go to the bottom of the map page, it will give you a really detailed map with the location at 10 or 15-second intervals, depending on detail. In fact, the detailed charts will even show you the tracks against maps of the constellations, which should help you if you are familiar with the night sky.
         Sky Online (the Sky & Telescope web site) carries station observation times for the next few nights at skyandtelescope.com/observing/almanac. Note that with the addition of the solar panels, the magnitude of the Space Station is now -1.0, making it brighter than all the stars other than the Sun and Sirius, and the planet Saturn as well. The Hubble Space Telescope is roughly magnitude 1.5, which is brighter than the stars in the Big Dipper, although, since it is lower in the sky, it is a bit more difficult to see. 
         Missions to the Space Station of Hubble Space Telescope may change its orbit. The next manned mission to the International Space Station is a replacement crew to be launched in mid-April. The next repair mission to the Space Telescope is planned for September 11, 2008.
         Pass times are from Heavens Above.

Station 3/17/2007
Time           Position   Elevation
6:46 a.m.         239°            18°*
6:47                 250              38
6:48                 343              64
6:49                   33              31
*Appears from Earth’s shadow

HST 3/22/2007
Time           Position   Elevation
8:41 p.m.         217°            20°
8:42                 199              26
8:43                 174              30
8:44                 148              27
8:45                 132              21*
Vanishes into Earth’s shadow
HST 3/23/2007
Time           Position   Elevation
8:40 p.m.         223°            23°
8:41                 205              28
8:42                 178              32
8:43                 151              28
8:44                 132              21

HST 3/24/2007
Time           Position   Elevation
8:38 p.m.         228°            21°
8:39                 205              28
8:40                 182              32
8:41                 154              29
8:42                 135              22

HST 3/25/2007
Time           Position   Elevation
8:37 p.m.         231°            20°
8:38                 213              27
8:39                 186              31
8:40                 159              28
8:41                 140              21

Station 4/4/2007
Time           Position   Elevation
6:17 a.m.         329°            15°
6:18                 345              28
6:19                   34              43
6:20                 107              30

Station 4/5/2007
Time           Position   Elevation
6:36 a.m.         295°            16°
6:37                 277              30
6:38                 221              44
6:39                 170              28

 Station 4/9/2007
Time           Position   Elevation
9:02 p.m.         236°            15°
9:03                 242              31
9:04                 304              69
9:05                   33              35
9:06                   41              17*
*Vanishes into Earth’s shadow

         Key: Position is measured in degrees clockwise from north. That is, 0° is due north, 90° is due east, 180° is due south, and 270° is due west.  Your fist held at arm's length is about ten degrees wide. "Elevation" is elevation above the horizon in degrees. Thus to find the Space Station at 9:04 p.m. on April 9, measure three and a half fist-widths north of west, then seven above the horizon.
         In addition to the J-Pass program which I use to provide this satellite viewing data, J-Pass provides a service called J-Pass Generator, which will e‑mail you sighting information for the next three days for up to ten satellites. For more information, go to science.nasa.gov/Realtime/JPass/PassGenerator/.

Calendar of Events

            March 17: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 3:00 p.m. at the McMurray residence in Norman. Details will be posted on osa.nss.org/index.html a week or two before the meeting.
            March 20: Vernal equinox at 7:07 p.m. CDT.
            March 21: Mercury is at greatest elongation, 28° west of the Sun (hence can be seen before dawn).
            April 9: The asteroid Juno is at opposition at magnitude 9.7.
            April 9: ISS replacement crew launched by Soyuz. Space tourist Charles Simonyi will accompany them and return with the old crew.
            April 11: [tentative] OSIDA meets at 1:30 p.m. at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Building, 201 NE 21st St., Oklahoma City, OK 73105. For more information, visit http://www.state.ok.us/~okspaceport/.
            April 17 – 19: Launch of Chinese Chang’e 1 lunar probe.
            April 20: Earliest date for the launch of the Space Shuttle Atlantis to the International Space Station.
            April 21: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced. Details will be posted on osa.nss.org/index.html a week or two before the meeting.
            April 22: Lyrid Meteor Shower peaks,
            May 19: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced. Details will be posted on osa.nss.org/index.html a week or two before the meeting.
            May 24 – 28: the 26th International Space Development Conference in Dallas, Texas, hosted by the National Space Society of North Texas. For more information, visit http://isdc.nss.org/2007. Contact e‑mail addresses are Ken Murphy at [email protected] and Carol Johnson at
[email protected].
            May 30: The asteroid Vesta is at opposition, 102 million miles from Earth, and is magnitude 5.4, which means it’s visible to the naked eye. It’s also brighter than the Uranus, which never gets above magnitude 5.7.
            June 2: Mercury is at greatest eastern elongation, 23° east of the Sun (hence can be seen after sunset).
            June 5: Jupiter is at opposition.
            June 6: Messenger's second flyby of Venus.
            June 8 – 10: SoonerCon science fiction convention in Oklahoma City.
            June 9: Venus is at maximum eastern elongation, 45.4° east of the Sun.
            June 16: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
            June 19: Pluto is at opposition at magnitude 13.8.
            June 20: Schedule launch of the Dawn mission to Ceres and Vesta.
            June 21: Summer solstice at 1:06 p.m. CDT.
            July 20: Mercury is at greatest western elongation, 20° west of the Sun (hence can be seen before sunrise).
            July 20: 38th anniversary of first moonwalk.
            July 21: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
            August 13: Neptune is at opposition at magnitude 7.8.
            August 13: Perseid meteor shower peaks. This is expected to be the best meteor shower of the year, and it takes place during the New Moon.
            August 18: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
            August 28: Total lunar eclipse, Totality begins at 4:52 a.m. and ends at 6:23 a.m. In Oklahoma, this eclipse will begin with the Moon partially eclipsed and we will see the entire total phase, although the end will be just after sunrise.
            September: India will launch its lunar probe Chandrayaan 1. This craft will orbit the moon at an altitude of 60 miles for two years.
            September 2: Asteroid Pallas is at opposition at magnitude 8.8.
            September 9: Uranus is at opposition. It will be magnitude 5.7, which is barely visible to sharp eyes in a dark sky.
            September 15: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
            September 23: Autumnal equinox is at 4:51 p.m. CDT.
            September 29: Mercury is at greatest eastern elongation, 26° east of the Sun (hence can be seen after sunset).
            October 20: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
            October 28: Venus is at maximum western elongation, 46.5° west of the Sun.
            November 2: Mercury is at greatest western elongation, 19° west of the Sun (hence can be seen before sunrise).
            November 9: the dwarf planet Ceres is at opposition at magnitude 7.2...
            November 17: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance meeting at 2:30 p.m. Location to be announced.
            November 17: Peak of Leonid meteor shower.
            December 2007-January 2008: Naked-eye Comet 8P/Tuttle peaks, probably at around 4th magnitude.
            December 14: Peak of Geminid meteor shower.
            December 16: [tentative] Oklahoma Space Alliance Christmas Party, time and location to be announced.
            December 22: Winter solstice is 12:08 p.m.
            December 24: Mars is at opposition with magnitude -1.6.
            January 15, 2008: Messenger's first flyby of Mercury.
            January 20, 2008: Mercury is at greatest eastern elongation, 19° east of the Sun (hence can be seen after sunset).
            February 20, 2008: Total lunar eclipse visible from North America.
            February 24, 2008: Saturn is at opposition.
            May 23 – 26, 2008: 27th International Space Development Conference in Washington, DC.
            July 9, 2008: Jupiter is at opposition.
            July 31, 2008: [Very tentative] Launch of the Planck Surveyor and Herschel Space Observatory from Kourou, French Guiana. [See below in “Space News.”
            September 5, 2008 The ESA's Rosetta asteroid & comet probe passes by asteroid 2867 Steins.
            September 11, 2008: [tentative] Repair mission to Hubble Space Telescope.
            October 6, 2008: Messenger's second flyby of Mercury.
            October 2008: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is launched.
            Sometime in 2009: Russia sends sample return flight to Phobos.
            January 14, 2009: Venus is at maximum eastern elongation, 47.1° east of the Sun.
            March 2009: Dawn asteroid probe flies by Mars.
            March 8, 2009: Saturn is at opposition.
            August 14, 2009: Jupiter is at opposition.
            September 30, 2009: Messenger's third flyby of Mercury.
            January 29, 2010: Mars is at opposition with magnitude -1.3.
            June 2010: Hayabusa returns to Earth with a sample of asteroid Itokawa.  This will be the first asteroid sample returned to Earth.
            June 2010: Japan launches the Venus Climate Orbiter to Venus.
            July 10, 2010: The Rosetta comet probe passes asteroid 21 Lutetia.
            September 21, 2010: Jupiter is at opposition. This is the closest Jupiter will come to Earth in the next 20 years, about 370 million miles.
            December 2010: Japan’s Venus Climate Orbiter arrives at Venus.
            Sometime in 2011: ESA launches the ExoMars Mars Rover.
            October 2011: Dawn probe orbits Vesta.
            March 18, 2011: Messenger goes into orbit around Mercury.
            October 2011 – April 2012: Dawn probe orbits Vesta.
            Sometime in 2012: Launch of the Space Interferometry Mission.
            Sometime in 2012: Russia launches the “Luna-Glob” mission which will deploy 13 mini-probes upon the lunar surface.
            March 3, 2012: Mars is at opposition at magnitude -1.2. This is the worst opposition for the next twenty years.
            June 6, 2012: Venus transits the Sun's disk.  The early part of this will be visible from the United States, but the full transit will only be visible from the western Pacific Ocean, eastern Asia, eastern Australia, and eastern Indonesia including New Guinea.
            June 2013: Earliest date for the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.
            August 2013 (approximate): The European Space Agency/JAXA BepiColombo Mercury Orbiter is launched.
            August 2014 - December 2015: The Rosetta space probe orbits comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Early in this mission, it will release the Philae lander. The Rosetta probe web site is The Rosetta probe web site is www.esa.int/export/SPECIALS/Rosetta
            February 2015: Dawn space probe arrives at Ceres. Operations are scheduled to continue through July.
            July 14. 2015: The New Horizons probe passes through the Pluto-Charon system. The New Horizons web site is http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/.
            July 2016-2020:  The New Horizons probe visits the Kuiper Belt.
            August 21, 2017: The next total solar eclipse visible in the United States, on a pretty straight path from Portland, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina.  St. Louis is the biggest city in-between.
            August 2019 (approximate) BepiColombo arrives at Mercury orbit.
            April 8, 2024: A total solar eclipse crosses the US from the middle of the Mexico-Texas border, crosses Arkansas, southern Missouri, Louisville, Cleveland, Buffalo and northern New England.
            August 12, 2045: The next total solar eclipse visible in Oklahoma.  This one is also visible in Salt Lake City, Denver, Little Rock (again), Tampa Bay and New Orleans.

Sky Viewing

         Mercury will be at greatest elongation on March 21 and is currently low in the eastern sky at dawn. It will be hard to see in April since it will be close to the Sun.
         Venus is an evening star shining at magnitude -3.9 in the west, making it brighter than any other object in the night sky other than the Moon. In April, it will be magnitude -4.0 and about 40° above the horizon at sunset. On April 11, Venus passes 2° south of the Pleiades.
         Mars is still low in the eastern sky at dawn, although it will brighten to magnitude 1 by the end of April. Mars and the Sun are both rising earlier each morning so Mars cannot escape too far from the dawn twilight.
         Jupiter is rising about 2:00 a.m. and is magnitude -2.1, making it brighter than any star. It will be rising at 1:00 a.m. at the end of March and 11:00 p.m. at the end of April.
         Saturn is currently magnitude 0.0 and is in the constellation Leo, about 10° west of Regulus, the handle of the Sickle in Leo. It will be in this general location all of April, and will be very high in the southwestern evening sky.
         Uranus was in conjunction with the Sun on March 7, as was Neptune on February 8, and both are lost in the Sun’s glare.

Space News

         A few months ago, the Cassini space craft photographed geysers erupting from near the south pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The problem is that Enceladus should be too small to have an internal heat source and is not subject to the degree of tidal flexing that powers the volcanoes on Io or melted the subsurface ocean of Europa. So whence comes the heat powering the geysers?
         One new theory is that when Enceladus formed, it contained substantial amounts of radioactive isotopes of aluminum and iron which provided enough heat to allow a rocky core to separate from the surrounding ices, then to melt the core. (I assume these would be 26Al with a half-life of 720,000 years and 60Fe, with a half life of 1.5 million years.)
         It’s not clear to me why (1) if Enceladus contained these isotopes, the other isotopes would not, and (2) it would still retain enough heat from these isotopes after 4.5 billion years.

         The New Horizons spacecraft passed Jupiter on February 28 on its way to Pluto and beyond. As it passed by, it photographed Jupiter, Io, Europa and Ganymede (but apparently not Callisto), and Jupiter’s ring. About 130 images are on-line at the New Horizons mission website, http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/. The pictures are thumbnails, so click on them to get a bigger image. The photograph of the rings is particularly striking. The closest approach to Jupiter was about 1.4 million miles, which means it never did get inside Callisto’s orbit. It was closer than Cassini’s flyby in 2000.
         From now until late in 2014, New Horizons will hibernate 310 days per year.           New Horizons will begin operations near Pluto on April 12, 2015, with closest approach on July 14. After that, it will explore the Kuiper Belt for the rest of the decade.

         Three different teams of astronomers have succeeded taken spectra of extrasolar planets. Two teams, led respectively by Jeremy Richardson and by Mark Swain, analyzed HD 209458b, a hot Jupiter 153 light-years from Earth; the third team, led by Carl Grillmair, analyzed HD189733. Richardson’s team won the publication race. Richardson’s team (and I think the other teams) used the fact that the planet crosses the disk of its star as seen from Earth. They took q spectrum when the planet crosses the star’s disk and subtracted the spectrum when it was behind the star, and that gave them the spectrum of the planet’s atmosphere.
         Although the data is pretty fuzzy, none of the teams detected water vapor or carbon dioxide in any of the planets’ atmospheres. This came as a surprise and the teams are struggling to explain it. Richardson’s team claims to have observed silicates in the atmosphere of their planet, and thinks that these may be obscuring the water and carbon dioxide. However, the other two teams have not detected silicates. Richardson thinks his team may possibly have detected aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. hydrocarbons with benzene rings), but is hedging his bets.

         Japan has finally cancelled its LUNAR-A mission after twelve years of delays. This mission would have torpedoed the Moon with two penetrators containing seismographs to measure lunar quakes, giving an idea of the interior structure of the Moon. The planned launch date was in 1995, but the penetrators were not ready, and in recent years, there had been trouble with the thrusters. The penetrators will be used in an upcoming Soviet lunar mission.

         The Advanced Camera for Surveys of the Hubble Space Telescope stopped working on January 27. This was the most sensitive of the cameras on the telescope, and it is a major loss. The defect is due to a short in circuitry and is not expected to be reparable even with the service mission in September of 2008. The ultraviolet channel of the Camera should still be fixable, but is less sensitive than the visible light channels. The 2008 mission will install an ultraviolet spectrograph and an infrared camera, as well as replacing defunct gyroscopes.

            The launch of the Planck Surveyor and Herschel Space Observatory from Kourou, French Guiana has been tentative scheduled for July 31, 2008. The Planck Surveyor will conduct the most sensitive study yet of the Cosmic Microwave background and follows the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The same Ariane will launch the Herschel Space Observatory, which will be the first to observe the sky in the far infrared and sub-millimeter radio wavelengths. (This telescope is named after William Herschel, who discovered infrared radiation as well as Uranus.) The two spacecraft will orbit separately around the L2 Earth-Sun Lagrangian point, about 930,000 beyond the Earth and Moon from the Sun. The Gaia Probe and James Webb Space Telescope will also orbit this point.

Space-Related Articles

         “The Big Bang +1 Second,” by Steve Nadis, Astronomy, April 2007, pp. 38 – 43. One of the frustrations of studying the early history of the Universe is that the Universe was opaque to light until the date of the Cosmic Microwave Background, about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. Although there are theories about what happened before that, scientists would like to know what was going on which means that they would like something the Universe was transparent to.
         Thus the search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background. Theoretically, this should date back to one second after the Big Bang. Since neutrinos very rarely interact with matter, there should be a sea of primordial neutrinos all around us. Since this dates back even earlier than the Cosmic Microwave Background, it is even colder: 1.95 degrees above absolute zero as compared to 2.725. Since the tendency of neutrinos to interact with matter goes down as the square of their energy, these primordial neutrinos are much more elusive than those being produced by the Sun and supernovas.
         In 1982, Thomas Weiler of Vanderbilt University suggested a possibility for detecting these. Suppose some neutrinos flying about the Universe are actually very energetic, say a billion times as energetic as any particle produced in a particle accelerator. If one of these were to collide with a primordial neutrino, the collision would produce a sea of exotic particles. At the right energy, the collision could produce Z-bosons, which makes the collision much more likely. The Z-boson is one of the particles which carries the weak nuclear force. It carries no charge, lasts for less than a trillionth of trillionth of a second, and has a mass about a hundred times that of a proton. It would itself disintegrate into a host of energetic particles. If detected, this would not only confirm the existence of the primordial and energetic neutrinos, it would allow us to measure the mass of the neutrino, and investigate physics at higher energies than we can achieve. [I presume other particles this energetic could be produced if neutrinos are, but those particles would have collided with matter a long time ago. The trick here is that the neutrinos last long enough for us to detect them.]
         However, none of this matters unless the high energy neutrinos actually exist. Nobody actually knows and they certainly have never been detected. Some of them might have been produced shortly after the Big Bang, or by the decay of exotic particles such as magnetic monopoles, which we also haven’t detected. So this is an unlikely theory with such a huge payoff that physicists simply have to look for it.
         The article also mentions indirect methods of detecting the Cosmic Neutrino Background. For example, its existence would affect the appearance of the Cosmic Microwave Background in ways we can and apparently have detected, so it does apparently actually exist. All the mass contained within the neutrinos is not available to collapse matter; hence the existence of the primordial neutrinos actually postponed the dates of star and galaxy formation.

         “Where 24 Men Have Gone Before,” by Geoff Brumfeld, Nature, 1 February 2007, pp.474 – 478. Current state of the Moon-Mars Vision, which is progressing gradually despite minimal increases in spending.

Oklahoma Space Alliance Officers, 2007 (Area Code 405)

Tom Koszoru, President                                     366-1797 (H)
John Northcutt, Vice-President                           390-3476 (H)
Syd Henderson, Secretary & Outreach Editor    321-4027 (H)
Tim Scott, Treasurer                                          740-7549 (H)
Claire McMurray, Update Editor                       329-4326 (H)  863-6173 (C)

OSA E-mail Addresses and Web Site:

[email protected] (Claire McMurray)
[email protected] (Heidi and Tom Koszoru)
[email protected] (Syd Henderson)
[email protected] (Tim Scott)
[email protected] (John Northcutt)
[email protected]  (Steve Galpin)
[email protected] (Nancy and David Craig).
         E-mail for OSA should be sent to [email protected].  Members who wish  their e-mail addresses printed in Outreach, and people wishing space-related materials e-mailed to them should contact Syd.  Oklahoma Space Alliance website is osa.nss.org/index.html. Webmaster is Syd Henderson.

Other Information

         Air and Space Museum: Omniplex, Oklahoma City, 602‑6664 or 1-800-532-7652.
         Oklahoma Space Industrial Development Authority (OSIDA), 401 Sooner Drive/PO Box 689, Burns Flat, OK 73624, 580-562-3500.  Web site www.state.ok.us/~okspaceport.
         Tulsa Air and Space Museum, 7130 E. Apache, Tulsa, OK  74115.
Web Site is www.tulsaairandspacemuseum.com.  Phone (918)834-9900.
         The Mars Society address is Mars Society, Box 273, Indian Hills CO 80454. Their web address is www.marsociety.org.
         The National Space Society's Headquarters phone is 202-429-1600.  The Chapters Coordinator is Bennett Rutledge 720-529-8024.  The address is:  National Space Society, 1620 I (Eye) Street NW Ste. 615, Washington, DC 20006.    Web page is space.nss.org.  
         NASA Spacelink BBS  205-895-0028.  Or try www.nasa.gov.  .
         Congressional Switchboard 202/224-3121.
          Write to any U. S. Senator or Representative at [name]/ Wash­ington DC, 20510 (Senate) or 20515 [House].

 A Chapter of the National Space Society

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          National Space Society has a special $20 introductory rate for new members ($35 for new international members).  Regular membership rates are $45, international $60.  Student memberships are $20.  Part of the cost is for the magazine, Ad Astra.  Mail to: National Space Society, 1620 I (Eye) Street NW, Washington DC 20006, or join at space.nss.org/membership. (Brochures are at the bottom with the special rate.) Be sure to ask them to credit your membership to Oklahoma Space Alliance.
          To join the Mars Society, visit.  One-year memberships are $50.00; student and senior memberships are $25, and Family memberships are $100.00.    Their address is Mars Society, Box 273, Indian Hills CO 80454.

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